Air pollution is a major environmental risk causing about 7 million premature deaths per year. These deaths are mostly caused from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) – such as ischemic heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer – but also from acute lower respiratory tract infections, such as pneumonia.
To date, air pollution – and more broadly environmental health – is not sufficiently addressed in the curricula of health professionals. Yet, the engagement of the health sector and the health community is pivotal to boost advocacy and political action for clean air. This requires a strong effort by governments and civil society willing to increase the awareness of current and future health workers to tackle the health effects of air pollution.
The target audience for this course is health workers which includes care-givers such as medical doctors, nurses, midwives, community health workers, and future health care professionals, as well as public health professionals and other representatives of the ministries of health.
This course is part of a broader set of material, the Air Pollution and Health Training Toolkit for health worker (APHT).
Approximately 4 hours.
What you'll learn
- describe what are the main air pollutants and their sources;
- describe how humans are exposed to air pollutants;
- explain the main health effects of air pollution and which are the populations at higher risk;
- recognize the health benefit of both ambient and household air pollution interventions at the population and individual level;
- outline the leading role health workers can play to address air pollution and health issues with individuals, patients, and communities.
Course introduction:The course is introduced by a welcoming video from Dr Maria Neira, Director of the WHO Department of Environment, Climate Change and Health.
Module 1: Outdoor (ambient) air pollution:This module is a general introduction to ambient air pollution. It will consider the history of air pollution, its sources and health impacts as well as describe the classical air pollutants and their characteristics. The module will also discuss the main determinants of air pollution and health impacts, including climate change, and provide an overview on the WHO milestones on air quality and health, such as the global air quality guidelines.
Module 2: Household air pollution:This module will examine household air pollution and its main health effects, safety and social impacts. It will also discuss the impacts of household air pollution on the environment, climate change and poverty as well as discuss risk perception. It will provide a global snap on access to clean fuel and technologies at the household level.
Module 3: Health effects of air pollution:This module will explore the health effects of air pollution from the definition of adverse health effect to the main pathways of exposure and diseases. It will describe the main pathological mechanisms exerted by air pollution in harming the body and will differentiate short- and long-term effects. It will also highlight the populations at higher risks from the negative effects of air pollution exposure.
Module 4: The role of health care workers:This module will explore the role of health care workers in addressing the health impacts of air pollution, and provide concrete examples both at the clinical and public health level. It will provide the summary of main health messages regarding outdoor (ambient) and household air pollution, with some in-depth considerations on physical activity, the use of personal respirators and air filters as well as discuss behavioural change. It will address advocacy principles, actions and community engagement for clean air and present some available WHO tools, resources, communication material and campaigns.