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This report will provide a summary of the evidence that TRAP impacts on health, but with an emphasis on the groups who are often excluded from discussions of potential exposures, health impacts and mitigation – the wider road users, including drivers themselves.

As TRAP concentrations fall off rapidly from the centre of the road, drivers, bus passengers and cyclists are technically at most risk with regard to exposure and are thus the groups who will most immediately benefit from actions to reduce pollutant emissions from vehicles.

This report provides evidence on the exposures across these groups, and for cyclists and pedestrians contextualises exposure against the health benefits associated with increased physical exercise.

Full text report from Imperial College London